These are the artworks that are currently displayed in exhibition as


Artworks 1 to 5 are as follows:

Apologies for the weird layout of the pics, the lack of scale of the paintings and lack of text in places.  The very largest painting is GALAXIES GALORE#2, while STARLET is one of the smaller works and the COSMIC diamond-shaped trio are the smallest, with SUPERNOVA being the tiniest.  The rest are all fairly large works.

Apologies for the multiple Updates – I hope the layout comes through properly now – at least for Desktops.  What it does on mobiles is going to be pot-luck!  I had a lot of trouble loading and arranging these pics – they refused to be moved, deleted themselves or other pics, and finally refused to be named.  This program needs a lot of work to make it more user-friendly.

See my blog Shaped Canvases Open Images: SPACE IN SHAPES to see the theoretical concept underlying these Astonomical works.

Jud House   30/07/2017

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Definitions for ART and DESIGN + Examples

ELEMENTS:  are point, line, shape,value and texture.
On their own they have no meanings, but jointly create visual messages, called Principles.


PRINCIPLES:  are contrast, repetition, subordination and harmony.
These are created by combining the Elements of Art.

POINT:  is the smallest visible entity, a set place in space, an indication of location, and can create strong visual energy.
One point indicates location; two points imply measurement and
direction; multiple points imply location, measurement, and direction; while different point sizes create all of the above plus vibration.




LINE:  can be described as a path left by a moving point, i.e. a path of action.
It indicates a position and a direction.  Energy travels its length and is intensified at each end.  Most important is directional force.
Horizontal:   supporting lines – stable.
Vertical:  gravitational pull – implied.
Diagonal:  dynamic, implying action.
Lines can be straight, curved, thick, thin, direct, indirect, unbroken, broken, and implied.

There is no absolute QUALITY of any visual unit.  Every element is influenced by its environment and any inter-relations which are operating – e.g.straight line illusions.


A Cheer                                                  2. A Screech
3 A Death                                                             4 Deviousness

5 Gentleness                                                      6 Breathlessness

7 Out of Line                                        8 Line of Least Resistance

9 Breadline

LINE IN SPACE:  Changing one parameter at a time.




SHAPE:  awareness of the space within and the space outside of outlines.
Also of positive/negative relationships, figure/field reversal, and shape/space support.  Shapes can be either static or dynamic.

VALUE:  the relative lightness or darkness of surfaces.
Also called tone, tonal scales,tints and shades, tonal values.  It is the means by which we show volume on a 2D surface.  No values are absolute.

KEY:  is a balance between High, Intermediate and Low Values, i.e. lights and darks, within the whole work.
High is light, Intermediate is medium, and Low is dark.  Can be used to create moods within a work, e.g. happy, sombre.

TEXTURE:  is the tactile quality of a surface, or the representation of the quality.
Texture can be actual or implied.

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN:  involve the character or quality of relationships within the work and between the work and its surroundings.
We will deal with proportion; repetition and rhythm; unity with variety; contrast; and emphasis and subordination.

PROPORTION:  a ‘rapport’ between two dimensions – can have meaning without any sense of measurement.
Size relationship of parts to each other and parts to the whole.
Golden Mean/ Golden Proportion/ Golden Section: naturally occurring proportion – is the rate of all growth in the world. 1:1.618 or close to 5/8ths.
Fibonacci Series:  2; 3; 5; 8; 13; 21; 34; 55; 89; etc.  Take any rwo numbers and draw a rectangle e.g. 5 x 8 cms or 8 x 13 cms.  It also has its basis in nature.
5:8 = 10 x 16 or 2.5 x 4

UNITY WITH VARIETY:  is the appearance of oneness – with some diversity, which can be value, shape, texture, colour, or scale change.

CONTRAST:  is the interaction of contradictory elements, e.g. contrast of shape with unity of colour, or vica versa.

EMPHASIS & SUBORDINATION:  Emphasis establishes a centre of interest, while subordination supports a centre of interest.

Jud House  1/09/2016

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Adrift in Space 2
ADRIFT IN SPACE – Acrylic – Jud House

Further to my  https://judsartwork.wordpress.com/2016/11/03/the-rules-of-art/ and my https://judsartwork.wordpress.com/2016/09/04/notes-on-painting/ posts, I’ve been pondering the variety of painting application techniques as I’ve worked on my ‘space’ paintings for my coming exhibition.  It seems to me that there are no longer any rigid rules about what you use to apply your paint.  And I so approve of that.  It is not what you use to get there – it’s the completed artwork, its evocative image that’s important.

I paint in Acrylic, using synthetic brushes – they are the most compatible for the type of work I do.  They are sympathetic to the Acrylic.  They don’t interfere with the delicacy of some of the implied texture, and allow me to work into that so finely, pulling out images, teasing colour in between the texture.  But I use so much more to apply my paint.

ANDROMEDA GALAXY – Acrylic – Jud House

For the ‘space’ paintings, I’ve applied very dark background Acrylic paint into a smooth medium-density layer upon which to cast the stars, galaxies, nebulae and matter of the universe.  I’ve applied thin coloured layers of paint over this and lifted it off with various types of plastics (bags, wrappings, bubble-wrap) and toweling (paper, old tea towels, rags, washers) to show the space behind the implied texture above.  I’ve then used the lifted off paint on the plastics to apply it in dabs and smears to other dry works – waste not, want not.  I’ve painted the plastics with the paint, from neat to very wet and thin, and dabbed it on the works to build up colour and texture simultaneously.  I’ve used my fingers, either with unintentional paint that I’ve then applied, or intentionally dipping my finger tips into the paint to apply it in touches, dabs, smears and rubbing, to add to or modify or correct a part of the artwork.  On other artworks I’ve applied paint with skewers, knives, spoons, sponges, lids, and other miscellaneous objects that have come to hand.  Some artworks have all been brushwork, from the initial background brush to finer brushes to paint on thin layers as washes, to build up and moderate the colours used.


Cross-section of GALAXIE GALORE – Acrylic – Jud House

Apart from a few larger sized flat brushes for blending larger areas and laying background paint onto smaller works, I prefer synthetic Dagger brushes.  I’ve only found one brand that makes them, so far, but there must be others.  They are so versatile – like having the best of all the brushes rolled into one.  Turn them side-on and you can sweep layers (thin through to thick) of paint across the canvas, rolling slightly to create waves, twisting back and forth for unusual organic shapes, turning it on edge to create thin to thick lines, lifting it onto its tiny tip to draw a line as thin as hair.  They only seem to come in 4 smallish sizes but your can do a lot with the largest of them that you can do with any other medium brush.  I have other shaped synthetic brushes in jars, many tiny tip brushes that I used for the tiny line work although they tended to produced blobby little lines despite their minute size.  But since my discovery of the Dagger brushes they remain in their jars unused, like the jars of hogshair brushes that I’ve not used for years (except one recently to paint around the outside edge of a thin-framed canvas) and that felt a bit weird.


REFLECTIONS – Acrylic – Jud House

Now for people who paint with Acrylic in thick, dense, structured brushwork, and who prefer the brushstrokes to show, and who build up ‘real’ texture that can be felt by touch, then hogshair (or synthetic) brushes are perfect for the tasks.  I’ve done many of these works in the past, but for the work I’m producing at the moment the hogshair brushes are not needed.  I may return to them at a future date – who knows – but I’m not discarding them or giving them away – they can sit in their jars till needed.

I know it’s a mundane and rather redundant thing to say, (and not aimed at experienced artists) but how you clean your brushes is so important.  Just a quick wash under the tap will not suffice.  Acrylic paint needs to be removed from the brush totally, or it will taint the next colour – unless you keep blue brushes for blue paint, red for red, etc  The paint tints the synthetic brush a little more than it does the hogshair, and embeds at the base of the ferrule a little less than the hogshair.  It needs to be massaged out.  I usually rinse my water container (a takeaway tub) then rinse the brush in that, emptying and refilling as it dirties, then finally massage the brush up near the ferrule to dislodge the last particles possible.  That way I don’t waste precious water, and end up with a clean brush.  Actually I usually do several brushes at once – whatever I’ve used for that artwork till the water needed changing.  The brushes last much longer and I don’t need to keep buying new ones.

NEBULAE – Acrylic – Jud House

As you can see, I quite approve of the freedom of equipment, impliment, and utensil use that artists of today have at their disposal.  You are no longer considered to “paint like a child” if you get stuck into your artwork with your painted hands.  You’re allowed to mix utensils as well as media these days.  Go for it!

Jud House  6/01/2017

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Galactic Exhibition

Just a quick note to let you all know that in April I’m having a solo art exhibition, featuring my Galactic/Cosmic paintings on shaped canvases, at the West Australian Gravity/Cosmos Centre, Military Road, GinGin, at the Observatory amongst the telescopes.  The retracting roof will give great light to the pieces which will of course be protected.

I have 10 large artworks to produce in the next 3 months so may not be able to add any more Art Theory and Technique blogs.  I may however be able to add the occasional update re the coming exhibition with pics of the artworks as they are completed.  PILLARS OF CREATION NEBULA, SUPERNOVA 3, and HORSEHEAD NEBULA already underway.

Hoping you will like them.

Jud House   31/12/2016


Shaped Canvases = Open Images.



The thing that I’ve realised after revisiting my art theory and history notes is that there are no longer any Rules of Art.  There are Techniques, Skills, Styles, Genres, and Subjective Perceptions of Art.

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Feeling Free L2 – Peter Nottrott – Saatchi Art

Techniques:  are multiple, some recognised, others a mystery to the viewers and other yet-to-be-enlightened artists.  These are creations, experiments, accidental images discovered in and teased out of the initial foundation or background, intentional explorations with single or mixed media, and expressionism gone rampant.  Now I realise that this may not sound like Techniques – brushwork, carving, palette knife work, colour mixing, sculpting, impasto, washes, and so on – but they all involve and are extensions of these, resulting in some incredible artworks.

Skills:  are obviously still really valuable.  It is obvious that the degree of Art Skills applied in different works vary hugely.  Some appear not to be applied at all, yet behind every artwork is the intent of the artist.  What may appear to the viewer as just a single coloured canvas may be a deliberate exercise in colour intensity, or transparency, or variation of hue, brushwork, density, or the creation of optical afterimage on the retina of the prospective viewer.  Other artworks display every skill necessary to depict near photographic figurative work – sound drawing skills, chiaroscuro, tiny brushwork, perspective, volume, use of light, colour contrasts and complements, balanced composition, underlying structure etc.  Both are valid.  Both are Art as creations of the artists.

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Sir Ian McKellan – Christian Hook

Styles:  are not quite the same thing as Genres.  I perceive Style as being the recognisable work of a specific artist, or group of artists – their signature.  Van Gogh’s work is recognisably his, as is Renoir’s, Matisse’s, Gauguin’s, and an interminable list of artists of all genres.  Today, thanks to the exposure via the Sky Arts Portrait Artist of the Year television program, the Styles of Christian Hook and Nick Lord, and also to a lesser degree that of the other contestants, are recognised instantly, world wide via social media.  The Style ‘Schools’ created within groups still show variations.  Collaborative works encompass the participants’ differences, producing a Style-Meld or Multi-Style. That is the astonishing thing about Art – that there can be so many Styles, such variety, a seemingly infinite degree of uniqueness that can be produced.  And what a gift that is to an artist – to develop, discover, create a unique Style!

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Lance Sergeant Johnson Gideon Beharry VC – Nick Lord

Genres:  are the designations of the trends that occurred, and continue to occur, in the development of Art, and thanks to the Impressionists (a Genre) its freedom from rigid constraints in Techniques, Skills, Styles and Subject Matter.  The work can be Figurative, Impressionist, Cubist, Post-Impressionist, Expressionist, Modern, Post-Modern, DaDa, Surrealist, Digital Figurative and Fantasy, Art Wallpapers (computer screens) and so on to the undesignated, yet-to-be-labelled latest trends of dribbling, slashing, scratching, blurring, wiping, texturing, collaging, mixing and constructing that artists can dream up.  Do they need labels?  Is the Genre important any more?

Subjective perceptions of Art:  And so I come to this.  I have been surprised and dismayed to find how much the subjective perceptions  – their artistic preferences, their personal baggage – of those judging the various television art competition programs, inform their comments on the contestants’ artworks.  It is a competition, so there must be judgements, and of course the judges’ fields of expertise will affect their points of view.  But in this artistic era, where freedom of expression is not just encouraged but expected, the denigration of artwork that is pleasing to look at, that is pretty, or illustrative, is unacceptable.

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Illustration – Double Exposure – Pat Perry 

Illustrative art is still Art.  It is a form of Figurative Art.  It’s place is not only in magazines or books  -it can hang on walls beside painterly works, or cubist works, or expressive works on an equal footing. The PUNCH magazine illustrations are still Art that hang proudly in galleries, and homes.  Paintings that are pretty, Watercolours of gorgeous light effects on colourful landscapes, are just as valid as a Portrait of a prominent person.  It feeds the emotions  of the viewer, producing happiness, a sense of serenity.  Art can be evocative, be about feelings.  In these days of stress, that is not a bad thing.  Art does not always have to carry a Message.  It doesn’t have to be about Issues.  Constable’s landscapes were about the landscapes, and the use of paint to capture the light and colours and shapes.

Artists, on the whole, are vulnerable people, exposing their work to the public hoping for understanding, comprehension, and validation, rather than negative criticism.  Consideration should be tantamount in the delivery of judgements – good points made followed by suggestions for tightening of skills needed for the specific style chosen by the contestant – as many judges do – rather than telling them it is dreadful , laughable, or lacking in skills – as a few judges do.  The ridiculing of contestants needs to stop.  It is unpleasant for all concerned, including the program viewers.  The audience want to see how the artists paint; how they can create their own versions of the designated subject matter.  They choose their favourites subjectively, and want to see them do well.  They do not want to watch people being humiliated and upset.  The shows should be about the Art and the Artists Styles.

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Landscape Abstract Digital Painting – Simon Boxer

Do the Rules of Art still apply?  Or are Artists truly free to create,with acceptance and respect?

Jud House  4/11/2016

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Self Portrait – Rembrandt – c1630

Print Making: is the process of transferring an original image from one surface to another repeatedly.  Prints are distinguished from paintings and drawings by having multiple originals, which are the products of creating multiples from one block or plate or stencil.  This is done by the artist’s own hands, or by those of an assistant, from a drawing, which is then signed and numbered when finished.

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Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse – Durer

They are produced in Editions – the edges must show, by courtesy, and all notation done in pencil.  After the Edition is run the artist should destroy the original plate, block or stencil – but Second and Third Editions can be made if noted as such.  The First Editions are more valuable than the following ones.  This method can also be used for Cast Sculptures, where several of one piece are cast, then numbered accordingly – 1/4 is first of four cast.  Proofs can be taken during stages and labelled as such, then the artist makes appropriate adjustments.  There occur naturally, discrepancies from print to print which adds to their individuality.  (These are separate from photo reproductions of art prints, which can be signed by artists, numbered and sold.)

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Lino Cutting for Print Making

Intaglio: is the area of the print laying below the surface, created by etching and engraving.
Etching:  is done by acid biting into an exposed area on a copper, zinc, or aluminium plate, the resulting grooves of which are filled with ink.
Engraving:  is more spontaneous, scratching directly onto the plate which is softer – wood, copper, perspex, steel – then also filling the grooves with ink.  Damp paper is placed on the plate then rolled through a press.
Relief:  lino or wood cut – ink on the surface then printed.
Serigraph:  is screen printing onto paper or material, with different inks for each revealed layer.  The screen can be blocked with lacquer, paper; and printed with a squeegee or sponge.
Mono Prints:  has ink or paint manipulated by hand-held tools (brush, sponge) on the plate (metal, glass, perspex), then paper placed on top to print.  It’s possible to get two copies from one plate, but the second will be a lot lighter and less textured.
Lithograph or Planograph:  has the area to be printed on the same level as the non-printed area.  It’s the oil and water don’t mix principle, where grease is used to repel the ink.

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Printmaking on the Prairies – Cornerstone

Printing has linked with Craft, Graphic Art, and Commercial Art.  But it can be Fine Art, as its origins and evolutions go hand in hand with the discoveries in drawing and painting.  Since the earliest times man has been engraving on stones, antlers, and hides, for religion or ornamentation.  Egyptians etched contours on walls, pillars, obelisks, then coloured them in.  In the 15th Century, Durer included printing into  Fine Arts – he discovered the Renaissance theories in Italy and took them back home, did many engravings, etchings and woodcuts, and sold them.  It was a way of getting multiple prints to the general public.

William Blake, Goya, and Lautrec experimented with printing to show  the times as they were.  Blake coloured his prints, turning some prints into paintings.  Goya was a master print-maker, creating a series of engraved prints – of disasters of war, bull fights, man’s folly, and the dark side of man.  Because of their flat planes, and beautiful shapes, the Japanese print-makers has a strong influence on the Impressionist artists.

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Japanese woodblock print

Jud House  18/10/2016

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History of Graphic Design Timeline – Austin Northcutt

Graphic Art: based on drawing as opposed to painting, is parallel to fine art.  it is more linear, and includes printmaking techniques.  Design is the orderly arrangement of shapes and the composition into a unified whole.

Graphic Design: (Commercial Art) is a discipline of this century – with chemical pigments, computers, cameras, movie cameras, photocopying, montage – the using of mechanical aids.  It is the use of art commercially, with a clear way of communication – ‘What you see is what you get!’ – with no doubt as to the message.  It is closely linked with advertising.

William Morris was the founder of Graphic Art, bringing function together with aesthetics.  Between the Wars, the Bauhaas School was formed, to bring art and industry together, to show the importance of functional design.  The students learned the skills of both art and industry, e.g. to give aesthetics to chairs.  In 1936, before WWII, it disbanded in Germany to go to the safety of Switzerland and the U.S.A.

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Art and Craft of Printing – William Morris

Graphic Art is information conveyed without a doubt.  It is involved with 2D imagery, and includes film, posters, billboards, magazines, photos – in fact any still image on a 2D surface.  It is a 2D media.  Graphic Art is the visual media of advertising, highly dependent on the illustration or image and lettering or typography, e.g. a cartoon is Graphic Art, as graphic illustration is usually narrative.  Sometimes they need words as well as images to help put across the message.

16th Century book designers were the first real Graphic artists.  With the onset of literacy for the populace books were needed, and scribes produced these, not merely pages of words, but aesthetically pleasing pages.  The development of the printing press was a further jump – placing words on the pages with borders, taking care of the shapes of the letters.

The two major areas of Graphic Art are illustration and typography.

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White Rabbit from Alice in Wonderland – illustrated by John Tenniel

Illustration: is not so much the technique, but the intentions – often linear, painted descriptively, and/or narratively.  It is when picture images are used for conveying specific information – Norman Rockwell illustrated the covers of the Saturday Post.  Methods used include painting, drawing, computer graphics, photos, or film, and can be kinetic – all to create art in the commercial sense.

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Saturday Evening Post covers -Norman Rockwell 

It used to be used to illustrate the written word, e.g. Egyptian entombing pictures, Greek pictures of healing herbs.  Romans illustrated aquaducts and architecture with perfect perspective, yet their frescos and mosaics didn’t use it.  In the Middle Ages, prayer books (psalters) were illustrated with informative images.  Leonardo drew pictures (of helicopters) where no words were available.  Early illustration used woodblock prints (Durer), then on to etching and printmaking.  In the 17th Century the Japanese produced multi-coloured woodcuts, which were adapted by the French Impressionists in the 19th Century.

The 20th Century Graphic artists made use of cameras, films, videos, lithography, compasses, rulers, photocopiers, and computers to help with the clarity of the detail.  They also had the availability of chemically produced pigments such as Cobalt Blue and Cadmium Red.  Each page has a visual impact of its own, but is allied to the page beside it.

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Chinese Characters with Pictures

Lettering:  In the Dark Ages hand printing or copying was done by monks.  In the 20th Century, between the Wars, there was more awareness of typography, of the quality of the words and letters themselves – e.g. curvilinear letters and style for love letters, typed letters for complaints, scribbled letters for shopping lists.  The quality of the written letters imparts feelings.  The Japanese and Chinese created their characters of calligraphy to have a quality of visual as well as for meaning.  Oriental calligraphic idiograms are called Characters: Egyptians calligraphic idiograms are called Glyphs.  The visual aspect of letters imparts a content – varying widths, spacing, curvilinear or rectilinear are all taken into account.  The letters are seen as shapes to be used as an artistic element in the design.  The art element of letters is manipulated when words are created visually.

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NewModern Typeface Design – Sawdust

Jud House  17/10/2016

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Neo-Dada was considered a hybrid, as it brought painting and sculpture together – linking the art of Cubist collages with constructivism.  It was a freedom in visual arts, where the work could be both 2D and 3D – e.g. with the image painted, then a shelf pit in front of it, with sculpture inside – a combination of relief collages and assemblages, with subject matter being of every day things and experiences.  Neo-Dada was for the exploration of art, and its re-creation for the world.  Johns and Rauschenberg worked together, sharing a studio for a while, aware of the art all around them, and mixing it with the traditional.

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Flag Complementary Colours – Johns – Corpse and Mirror II

Jaspar Johns:  painted a flag in green, orange and black, which when stared at gave an after-image of the red, blue and white flag.  He built up his works in encaustic (beeswax plus pigment) onto his canvases, instead of carving away, to give a texture and form to his work.  Assemblages, optical illusions, frottage, use of stencils, graphic art, fine art, crazy art, all brought together in his works.  He was often linked to Pop Art, as he was concerned with flat images, maps, flags, and numbers on paintings.  In the sixties, he included extraneous materials, e.g. knives, forks, stuck on, dangling off, as he attempted to create a new relationship between art and life – when does art end and life begin?  He produced sculptures, lithographs, sets and costumes for the ballet, working in 2D and 3D art.

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Charlene – Rauschenberg – 1954

Robert Rauschenberg:  also added objects to canvas, and called them combines – to blur the line between art and life.  He was also linked to Pop Art, drawing from daily life and media.  He used more ambiguous and painterly techniques, using paint medium more, and although he still had shock value in Dada, he had less silliness.  He brought to his works life’s unpredictable complexities, by ensuring that his works were hung in the right places to be seen properly – by motorising it, it needed to be near a power outlet, making it actually more complex.  He showed variations on Cubist collage, through Surrealism to Dada, and back again.

There has been a link drawn from Abstract Expressionism and Pop Art, through the works of Johns and Rauschenberg.  They both showed an interest in the treatment of the picture surface plane which is something that has been evolving from Manet, to Cubism to Abstraction.

POP ART (Popular Art)

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Elvis Presley – print on canvas – Warhol

Pop Art is still with us in heart if not in art.  Johns and Rauschenberg lacked the commitment to the whole acceptance of the urban popular culture, unique to post WWII, that signified Pop Art.  Its manifestations were constantly changing, everything had to be new, promoting the idea of transience.  Although it originated in England, it grew in America due to the extra affluence of the latter.  Also this occurred because it was vulgar, transient, expendable, witty, sexy, gimmicky, and glamorous – all totally superficial, which the Americans loved.

It was in films, ready-mades, magazines, posters all used this form of art – painting, screen-printing, sculpture, assemblages, were all used to create this art that was in and out of fashion like clothes were.  It was often commercial – art made to sell to a vulgar society.  It reflected life in the fast lane, and current urban life.  It was very effective, it communicated, it was superficial, it was surface decoration.  The artists never attempted to justify it.  The good thing about it was that it returned to the image.  (Photo Realism and Romantic Realism also developed at this time).  it was not so much a movement as a tendency, with many artists appearing and disappearing.

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Grevy’s Zabra – Warhol – Green Coca-Cola Bottles

Andy Warhol:  baffled critics and public alike by his success, whcih he made, along with his lifestyle, as art-form in itself.  he was his own work of art, he consciously personified Pop Art.  But he also had artistic talent – he could paint, draw, sculpt, and make screen-prints.  He employed helpers in factories, he made film and stage sets, he made personalities.  To be seen with him was to be IN.  His skill and influence on the art world stopped him being a con.  he sued startling colour and visual energy, was a graphic artist, and was genuine.  He had the ability of “turning the mediocre into the profitable”.  He was a manipulator of society, rock bands, gossip columns, gossip magazines, rumour, and urban cultural society in general.  He and his life-style was just a facade, and he was very powerful within his strata.  He was a product of his affluent time and took advantage of it.  He was pretentious.

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Project 2 Vector Art – Lichtenstein

Roy Lichtenstein:  was more serious in his approach to art.  He began by painting great American historical events.  Then he worked comic book art and advertising art up into fine art – using tiny dots that comprised the photo image (as Seurat did with colour in Pointillism), and creating visual images with them on a larger scale.  Sometimes he took segments of a comic book image and blew them up so that his work was a design rather than a s comic image.  He used the qualities of design, the rhythms within design, and linear treatments, working with them and the concept of abstraction to communicate in an abstract manner.  The working of the painting and the subject matter were of very little importance – but the satire and public comment was.

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Man swimming on the banks of the Thames – Oldenburg

Claus Oldenburg:  had a great sense of humour.  His sculpture reflects it, creating surprise on the perceptions of the viewers by presenting the acceptable in an unacceptable way, e.g. furry cup and saucer.  He made the viewer contemplate smooth versus rough, hard versus soft.  He delighted in organic contours, creating not so much the art of the con rather than the art as fun.

Pop Art accepted and approved of all art, artifacts (even Tupperware, and comics).  Anything plastic was good.  If it were popular then it was valid –  Art could be made out of it. It explored the good and the bad of the fact and fantasy of life.

NB:  If you choose to quote from this blog please cite its URL in your Bibliography.

Jud House   12/10/2016

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