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Self Portrait – Rembrandt – c1630

Print Making: is the process of transferring an original image from one surface to another repeatedly.  Prints are distinguished from paintings and drawings by having multiple originals, which are the products of creating multiples from one block or plate or stencil.  This is done by the artist’s own hands, or by those of an assistant, from a drawing, which is then signed and numbered when finished.

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Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse – Durer

They are produced in Editions – the edges must show, by courtesy, and all notation done in pencil.  After the Edition is run the artist should destroy the original plate, block or stencil – but Second and Third Editions can be made if noted as such.  The First Editions are more valuable than the following ones.  This method can also be used for Cast Sculptures, where several of one piece are cast, then numbered accordingly – 1/4 is first of four cast.  Proofs can be taken during stages and labelled as such, then the artist makes appropriate adjustments.  There occur naturally, discrepancies from print to print which adds to their individuality.  (These are separate from photo reproductions of art prints, which can be signed by artists, numbered and sold.)

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Lino Cutting for Print Making

Intaglio: is the area of the print laying below the surface, created by etching and engraving.
Etching:  is done by acid biting into an exposed area on a copper, zinc, or aluminium plate, the resulting grooves of which are filled with ink.
Engraving:  is more spontaneous, scratching directly onto the plate which is softer – wood, copper, perspex, steel – then also filling the grooves with ink.  Damp paper is placed on the plate then rolled through a press.
Relief:  lino or wood cut – ink on the surface then printed.
Serigraph:  is screen printing onto paper or material, with different inks for each revealed layer.  The screen can be blocked with lacquer, paper; and printed with a squeegee or sponge.
Mono Prints:  has ink or paint manipulated by hand-held tools (brush, sponge) on the plate (metal, glass, perspex), then paper placed on top to print.  It’s possible to get two copies from one plate, but the second will be a lot lighter and less textured.
Lithograph or Planograph:  has the area to be printed on the same level as the non-printed area.  It’s the oil and water don’t mix principle, where grease is used to repel the ink.

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Printmaking on the Prairies – Cornerstone

Printing has linked with Craft, Graphic Art, and Commercial Art.  But it can be Fine Art, as its origins and evolutions go hand in hand with the discoveries in drawing and painting.  Since the earliest times man has been engraving on stones, antlers, and hides, for religion or ornamentation.  Egyptians etched contours on walls, pillars, obelisks, then coloured them in.  In the 15th Century, Durer included printing into  Fine Arts – he discovered the Renaissance theories in Italy and took them back home, did many engravings, etchings and woodcuts, and sold them.  It was a way of getting multiple prints to the general public.

William Blake, Goya, and Lautrec experimented with printing to show  the times as they were.  Blake coloured his prints, turning some prints into paintings.  Goya was a master print-maker, creating a series of engraved prints – of disasters of war, bull fights, man’s folly, and the dark side of man.  Because of their flat planes, and beautiful shapes, the Japanese print-makers has a strong influence on the Impressionist artists.

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Japanese woodblock print

Jud House  18/10/2016

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History of Graphic Design Timeline – Austin Northcutt

Graphic Art: based on drawing as opposed to painting, is parallel to fine art.  it is more linear, and includes printmaking techniques.  Design is the orderly arrangement of shapes and the composition into a unified whole.

Graphic Design: (Commercial Art) is a discipline of this century – with chemical pigments, computers, cameras, movie cameras, photocopying, montage – the using of mechanical aids.  It is the use of art commercially, with a clear way of communication – ‘What you see is what you get!’ – with no doubt as to the message.  It is closely linked with advertising.

William Morris was the founder of Graphic Art, bringing function together with aesthetics.  Between the Wars, the Bauhaas School was formed, to bring art and industry together, to show the importance of functional design.  The students learned the skills of both art and industry, e.g. to give aesthetics to chairs.  In 1936, before WWII, it disbanded in Germany to go to the safety of Switzerland and the U.S.A.

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Art and Craft of Printing – William Morris

Graphic Art is information conveyed without a doubt.  It is involved with 2D imagery, and includes film, posters, billboards, magazines, photos – in fact any still image on a 2D surface.  It is a 2D media.  Graphic Art is the visual media of advertising, highly dependent on the illustration or image and lettering or typography, e.g. a cartoon is Graphic Art, as graphic illustration is usually narrative.  Sometimes they need words as well as images to help put across the message.

16th Century book designers were the first real Graphic artists.  With the onset of literacy for the populace books were needed, and scribes produced these, not merely pages of words, but aesthetically pleasing pages.  The development of the printing press was a further jump – placing words on the pages with borders, taking care of the shapes of the letters.

The two major areas of Graphic Art are illustration and typography.

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White Rabbit from Alice in Wonderland – illustrated by John Tenniel

Illustration: is not so much the technique, but the intentions – often linear, painted descriptively, and/or narratively.  It is when picture images are used for conveying specific information – Norman Rockwell illustrated the covers of the Saturday Post.  Methods used include painting, drawing, computer graphics, photos, or film, and can be kinetic – all to create art in the commercial sense.

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Saturday Evening Post covers -Norman Rockwell 

It used to be used to illustrate the written word, e.g. Egyptian entombing pictures, Greek pictures of healing herbs.  Romans illustrated aquaducts and architecture with perfect perspective, yet their frescos and mosaics didn’t use it.  In the Middle Ages, prayer books (psalters) were illustrated with informative images.  Leonardo drew pictures (of helicopters) where no words were available.  Early illustration used woodblock prints (Durer), then on to etching and printmaking.  In the 17th Century the Japanese produced multi-coloured woodcuts, which were adapted by the French Impressionists in the 19th Century.

The 20th Century Graphic artists made use of cameras, films, videos, lithography, compasses, rulers, photocopiers, and computers to help with the clarity of the detail.  They also had the availability of chemically produced pigments such as Cobalt Blue and Cadmium Red.  Each page has a visual impact of its own, but is allied to the page beside it.

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Chinese Characters with Pictures

Lettering:  In the Dark Ages hand printing or copying was done by monks.  In the 20th Century, between the Wars, there was more awareness of typography, of the quality of the words and letters themselves – e.g. curvilinear letters and style for love letters, typed letters for complaints, scribbled letters for shopping lists.  The quality of the written letters imparts feelings.  The Japanese and Chinese created their characters of calligraphy to have a quality of visual as well as for meaning.  Oriental calligraphic idiograms are called Characters: Egyptians calligraphic idiograms are called Glyphs.  The visual aspect of letters imparts a content – varying widths, spacing, curvilinear or rectilinear are all taken into account.  The letters are seen as shapes to be used as an artistic element in the design.  The art element of letters is manipulated when words are created visually.

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NewModern Typeface Design – Sawdust

Jud House  17/10/2016

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DADA 1915 – 1922

Dada artworks invite misunderstanding, and evoke questions from the viewer.

An anti-art, anti-everything movement, was founded in Switzerland by a group of French and German artists who wanted to divorce themselves from the artistic era they were in.  They had a sense of humour, and looked for the ridiculous in works.  It had links with Cubism and Expressionism, with Surrealism and Abstraction (re Jackson Pollock).  It appeared simultaneously in Europe (Spain and Germany) and New York as a protest movement against World War I, and against the accepted cultural traditions, morals, and values that would permit a war.  They were artistically protesting against ideas of beauty and formality, and against galleries and art critics dictating what was acceptable in art, and against art which appeared to be turning its back on reality.

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Assemblage – Schwitters – 1920

The world was crazy and mad in 1915 – 16.  Current standards had to be returned.  The rational world had to be shown rationally.  The Cubists and Impressionists did it pictorially; Dada did it mentally – they gave a marvellous freedom, showed that you can have fun with art, that it can be silly.  Dada had a purpose, a goal to rethink the role of art and artists in society – to invite misunderstanding, to evoke questions from the viewer.  Dadaists tried to review standards held by non-artists, and to tear down the 19th century ideals of art, and replace them  with 20th Century ideals.  They also wanted to re-admit emotions and expression into art, to permit creative intuition to take precedence over formal theories, allowing the artist to express himself unencumbered by rules – to be highly expressive.

The artistic selection was up to the artist – he could paint what he wanted and how he wanted, with arbitrary colours, distortions, etc.  The Dadaists took it a bit too far.  Duchamp said “I am an artist.  I choose it. Therefore it is art.”  Dada is a joke, but allows for the artist to select for himself.  Dada also allows for subconscious directions, for chance shapes to create the line – for subconscious development of chance shapes (by dropping a piece of string and noting the shape it makes when it lands) – perception development.

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LHOOQ – Duchamp

Dada was famous for its jests (jokes) – like Mona Lisa with a beard and moustache titled LHOOQ.  Also Readymades – something exists and using it as a sculpture (bicycle wheel on a stool) makes it art.  Corrected Readymades – created chance compositions from shapes in a cloud.  They created manifestos.  The Dadaists were outrageous and bizarre, responding to any cultural medium.  The art of no taste, the art of the con.

Dada was a forerunner of Surrealism and Op Art, and the happenings in the 1960s.  It was in painting, sculpture, theatre, music, and literature.  It did not reflect good taste, rather a total lack of taste.  It was an artistic tantrum, but it had positive effects.  It re-established spontaneity and intuition; it re-affirmed expression and imagination together; it drew attention to the silliness of the times, and to the morbidity.  It helped to artistically redefine standards in art, and allowed the artists to dictate their own standards.  it was artistic freedom to the maximum.

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Fountain – R Mutt – 1917

Kurt Schwitters: created collages from trash found in gutters – used artistic selection creating an awareness of shapes, textural interest and design sense in his works.  He was never anti-art, always appreciated visual image, and returned to geometric abstraction in his later works.

Marcel Duchamp:  was the leader of the movement, and raised provocative questions in art.  He was French, and originally a Futurist, who worked tongue-in-cheek to shake up the elitists in the art world.  he influenced the Surrealists, who tried to create works of art from the artists’ internal ideas.  He gave artistic freedom to the limits, and crossed boundaries of traditions, saying they didn’t exist.

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Abstract Composition – Arp

Hans Arp:  did works of collage, relief works, and sculpture.  He experiments with the laws of chance – he wished to produce visual images over which he had no control.  He made use of random composition, including the rejection and selection of its happy accidents.  Sculptures evolved from within themselves, as form evolved from form, with the final sculpture from a part of the first.

Max Ernst:  was influenced by medieval artists, Bosch and Grunwald, and by his contemporaries, Picasso, Klee and Dali.  His works were seen as a bridge between Dada and Surrealism.  He was interested in chance – frottage, rubbings, gottage; decalcomania – the point between two surfaces then finding an image in the result.  Also he was interested in fantasy.

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Cormorants – Ernst – 1920

If you choose to quote from this blog please cite the URL in your Bibliography.

Jud House  27/09/2016

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The German Expressionists broke up into two groups – The Blue Rider, and The Bridge – which was pre-World War I, though some continued on between the Wars.

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Autumn Study in Oberau – Kandinsky

THE BLUE RIDER – Munich – 1911 – 1914

This was the Abstract group – non-figurative, non-object, non-representational works – with Modernism as its doctrine.  They were not looking at optical reality (like the Impressionists), or at a structural or symbolic reality (like the Post-Impressionists), but were highly interested in colour (like the Fauves).  But here their pursuit of the abstract was through looking for their inner spiritual vision.  They brought about a whole new system of approaching art – one which showed their Germanism.  A philosopher, Hermann Obrist, explained the psychic affects and the power of abstract forms and colour, and followed it through with their affects on people.  Also this was the time of Einstein’s theories, and other scientific discoveries, which also had an affect on the artists.

Some members of the Blue Rider were Kandinsky, Klee, Marc, and Von Jawlensky.  They declared an independence from all boundaries, in order to create an imaginary artistic arena, with a whole new artistic language.  An inner vision onto canvas without relating to nature.  They created a new tradition, made up new rules, pure abstraction as an escape, with art relating to form – not to the real world or nature.

They were influenced by Impressionism, music, folk art, colour, and Medieval icons.  They were aware of cubic ideas of picture space, with the many influences of old, new and contemporary art.  Their works were highly colourful, and they played with colour and its link to music.

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Blue Mountains – Kandinsky – Composition VIII

Wassily Kandinsky, one of the greatest abstract expressionists, was the discoverer of non-figurative abstraction.  He progressed from very real landscapes, to Fauvism, to figurative improvisations (BLUE MOUNTAINS), to non-representative abstraction, and non-geometric abstraction.  He worked with a furious use of line, and a vehement use of colour.  He wrote a detailed theory of colour as it was related to music.

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Tale a la Hoffmann – Klee – Early and Late Years 1894-1940

Paul Klee, who taught at the Baahaus, created works of perspective fantasies, and allegories, with a sense of underlying geometry – very childlike innocent works, joyful, trusting, simplistic, harmonious, spiritual.  He worked in many media – pencil, oil, etching, water colour, gouache, brush and pen, both painting and drawing.  He was influenced by Abstract Expressionists, German Expressionists, Dadaists, and Surrealists.

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Blue Horse – Marc – Pigs

Franz Marc made a symbolic use of animals in his works, also looking at his works through a prism, and painting the resultant break-up of the colours.  He was more in tune with nature than with man.  His gentle and emotional abstractions reflected man, God and nature.  He was affected by Van Gogh’s work, and use of swirling colour.  Nature could be used for expressing his soul, and that symbolic use of colour could further his aim.  His parcels of colour never decorate, and were not arbitrary, but based on a symbolic code – blue is the male principle, severe and spiritual; yellow is the female principle, gentle, cheerful and sensual; and red is matter, brutal and heavy.  This relates to how colour affects us emotionally.

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Portrait of Andreas – Von Jawlensky – Mystical Head

Alexi Von Jawlensky never got into total abstract expressionism.  He began to summarise his paintings – Schematizations.  He was influenced by the Fauves, but reduced images and faces – removing the details.  He was not a ‘member’ of the Blue Rider group.

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Summer in Davos – Kirchner

THE BRIDGE – Dresden – 1906-1913

This was the Figurative group – they wanted to bridge the ideas from the past to the future.  They were very proud of the German origin of their art.  They established a new aesthetic, linking past to present, learning from great artists, transposing from the past to modern media.  They linked academic heritage and traditions to modern art.  They ignored the fact that introspective realism didn’t exist in Medieval art due to a lack of understanding of perspective in those times.  They actually created new symbols in art – a new style.

They were founded by Ernst Kirchner, Emil Nolde and Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, who were influenced by Oriental and primitive art, Van Gogh, Gauguin, and colour in African art.  They looked for symbolic content, expressed personal ideas, also influenced by the Fauves and Impressionists, by Ensor and Munch.  But they wanted to remove the French influence and Cubism from their art – to extol the German in their art.  [I feel that they reflected the mood of their country at that time.]

But these influences show in their work – we can see the expressive use of colour and broad flat areas of colour, distortions, unreal perspective.  The Bridge artists knew how to do these things correctly, but they wanted freedom of expression, with no fixed rules.  It was a paradox.  They bridged everything going on in art throughout Europe.  They liked the idea of symbolism, and were interested in human rather than artistic ideas.  They were social critics showing moralistic reality, by the use of evocative and emotional themes.  They were influenced by the writings of Nietzsche – of the superman or woman with the doctrine of ruthless will to power.

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Female Artist – Kirchner – Street Scene

Ernst Kirchner was the founder of Figurative Expressionism called The Bridge.  He was an architectural student, interested in Graphic Art.  he did many woodblocks.  In his paintings he used the Fauves colour, more in an unreal manner rather than for mood.  He searched for underlying values in what he painted in subject matter.  He used arbitrary colour to get beyond the identification of subject.  He was interested in primitive carvings, Japanese prints, and Medieval stained glass windows.  There is a sense of agitation in his works, angularity of lines, to show the stress in industrial society – a passing of old traditions and morality, an approach to war.  The agitation and violence of his art reflects his era.

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The Burial (oil) – Nolde – Lake Lucerne (watercolour)

Emil Nolde was looking for something under the surface – sought emotional reality behind appearances – bridging the soul of man to life. His works appear to be very violent, with distorted forms, clashing colours, and textural in his oils.  In his watercolours he used mild peaceful themes – reflecting Matisse and Ensor.  He had an instinct for colour.

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Cats (woodcut) – Schmidt-Rottluff – Corner of a Park

Karl Schmidt-Rottluff used simple angular forms, lines, similar to primitive art, with a bold use of colour.  He had a brutal style of line in his woodcuts, and his paintings showed a bold use of primary colours.

NB:  If you choose to quote from this blog please cite its URL in your Bibliogrpahy.

Jud House  16/09/2016

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Landscape near Montecarlo – Monet
Shows pure colour straight from tubes onto canvas.

  1.   The use of pure colour – paint straight out of tubes onto canvas, altered/mixed/blended on canvas not on palette – broken colour technique, with high key colours, high intensity.
  2.     Brushwork showed – not smoothed over when finished, giving a texture to the work.
  3.     Instantaneous affect – sense of capturing an instant, e.g. moment of sunburst through clouds onto road – showing constant changes of atmosphere.
  4.     Sense of spontaneity – first painting was the final painting, with no follow-up in the studio –  they aimed for spontaneous reactions between the art, the artist and the subject.
  5.     They painted on a white canvas – there was no underpainting in sepia tones   – they allowed the white canvas to show through transparent colours giving a bright high-intensity, and sometimes left the canvas bare as part of the whole visual.
  6.     Painting outside on location – au plein air (in the open air) – real atmosphere captured out of doors, instead of painting in the studios from notes, to accentuate the ways of nature.
  7.     Use of colour in shadows – they showed colours that reflect on one another, the shadows tending to be the contrast of the subject colour.  True to real life, they used black as an accent colour – black exists in life.
  8.     The subject matter was everyday scenes – was happy generic secens, with no narrative, no religious or moral message which was considered revolutionary.
  9.     Composition – often asymmetrically balanced with no focal point or from unusual view points – no longer traditional, although not necessarily open, but often not closed, e.g. keyhole affect, cut-off compositions that took a slice of life.  They showed the influence of photography, breaking off the image where the artist chose, not according to design principles.
  10.     Understanding of optical sciences – they learnt how the eye saw, understood properties of light (refraction, spectrum etc) and reflection, how light affects the perception of colour, to create works that were visually stimulating.
  11.    Portable paintings – size was no longer a priority – they could be as small as the artist wanted – to go on the walls of the middle class’s homes.


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Monet – La Grenouillere – Renoir
Shows use of new ferule brushes to create light strokes on water.

  1.   The invention of the camera – this freed artists from having to paint pictures that recorded events and people, both religious scenes and historically.  The camera could make pictures now,so they could make paintings – a strong reason for change.
  2.     Chemically produced paints – these were available in tubes which the artist could take out into the field.  These were produced in factories, eliminating the vagaries of colour-mixing by the artists, and gave brighter colours, and new colours, e.g. chrome orange.
  3.     Ferule (rectangular metal clamp) was added to brushes – factory made – allowing for ease of portability – producing flat, small through to large brushstrokes, lines and slashes on the canvas as part of the final image.
  4.     Sense of Modernism – rejection of pseudo-sophisticates (gallery owners etc.) who kept control over art.  Marxist principles of equality, revolting against political and artistic regimes.
  5.     Japanese prints (Ukiyo-e) – a school of printmaking in Tokyo came through to Europe as wrapping paper around artifacts – showed a pleasing use of line and broad areas of colour, with flat images with no depth or true perspective.  They had flat bold decorative pattern-making with simple subject matter, e.g. geisha girls in gardens, and landscapes with atmosphere.
  6.     Recognition of the 2-Dimension of the picture plane – why bother making a 2D surface into a 3D image – rather use and accept 2D surface to make painting on.  Understanding the limits of their medium, instead of imitating reality they made visually stimulating paintings, by arranging colour, shape and line to create a pattern.
  7.     Courage to change – it took great courage to fight the establishment – to dare to be different, to turn their backs on what was accepted.


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Two Young Girls Playing the Piano – Renoir
Shows two styles for same subject.

  1.     Beginnings of Abstraction – recognised 2D surfaces, first by breaking volumetric subjects down to dobs of light – broken colour technique – Pointillism an immediate abstraction.
  2.     Better understanding of medium and works – made quantum emotional leap, with more effective use of medium.
  3.     Individuality of artist became important – Renoir served as a porcelain painter, painted through to Pointillism then back again to show volume of his subjects – not following set rules, but his own.  Multiplicity of styles within Impressionism, credited to innovations in art.
  4.     Sense of intuitive discoveries as a result of multiplicity of styles and individuality – allowing freedom of intuitive creativity.
  5.     Emancipation of colour – was most important affect.  It was used for description for too long – now they used arbitrary colour, putting colours where they were found only for an instant, e.g. pink in haystack.  They liberated colour – it was developed not just as a part of the painting, but became the painting itself.
  6.     Small portable paintings were produced instead of large works.  This helped make the Impressionists popular during their own lifetimes.

They all learnt from each other.

(C) Jud House   8/09/2016

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From 1840 – 1870, Art was related to political idealogy.  In 1874 the Impressionists had their first exhibition which was not well received by the Academie.  Claude Money, Alfre Sisley, and Camille Pissaro were true Impressionists.

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Les Meules 1891 – Monet – same scene, different light.

Claude Monet was a pure Impressionist, producing paintings rather than pictures, and was known as the poet of light.  He was intrigued with the surface of the painting, of the canvas, and created tactile paintings, concentrating on the light on the subject rather than the subject itself.  He was fascinated by the constant shifts and changes of the light, and painted in series, e.g. haystacks, Rouen Cathedral, and waterlilies, to show the difference in light on the same subject.  His use of colour holds his works together – there was no underpainting – just pure colour onto canvas.  He created tonal rhythmic compositions which were the forerunners of abstraction.  He was more interested in painting the tonal light shining off the haystack than the haystack itself, in many cases to the point of dismissing the subject structure altogether, becoming merely paint on canvas.  His techniques were quick and spontaneous, with the colours mixed on the canvas.

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Village of Voisins – Sisley – Rue de la machine Louvenciennes

Alfred Sisley was strongly influenced by Turner and Constable for their portrayal of light and atmospherics.  He painted landscapes, using linear and atmospheric perspectives to take the viewer deep into the painting to the horizon.  His strength of definition was colour and technique, he translated his subject matter into colour, and used good design principles.

Camille Pissaro painted landscapes and street scenes from unusual viewpoints, often high.  His work is easy to identify as he would section off his paintings using strong verticals, and creating frames within frames, e.g. by using street lamps, trees.  He used pure unmixed paint direct onto the canvas to create a sparkling effect of light, with quick application, using short and bold dobs and brushstrokes which evolved into Pointillism.  (Divisionalism put red next to yellow so that the eye would perceive orange.)  He used this technique to capture the spontaneity  of movement, which was used by most Impressionists.

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The Apple Seller – Renoir

Pierre-August Renoir was an expert colourist, with a sundrenched palette, using delicate hues, everyday subjects, happy compositions, and warm luminous glazes to take him away from reworked paintings to spontaneity – to let his work evolve.  He was influenced by Rubens, and later brought volume and realism to his works.

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Dancers in Pink – Degas

Edgar Degas was especially impressionistic in his pastel works.  He preferred genre scenes to landscapes, with his works mainly done indoors, and using unusual viewpoints.  He was not interested in the beauty of the dancers or horses but rather in the movements, capturing different poses of both before the dance or race.  He often mixed his media, using watercolour with pastels and charcoal.  He was influenced by Japanese prints and photography.  He used bright colour, and exhibited with the Impressionists, but was not really revolutionary.  Often cut off his paintings in odd places, and featured large blank areas, e.g.stage with dancers to the left and right.

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Mother and Child – Cassatt;    In the Dining Room – Morisot

Mary Cassatt and Berthe Morrisot both painted domestic scenes, genre scenes – but they were not taken really seriously because they were women – both gave up serious painting when they married, to raise their families as good women should – at the time in history.

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Nocturne (Thames at Battersea) – Whistler – Nocturne blue and silver
(Cremorne Lights 1872)

James Whistler and Henri Toulouse-Lautrec were greatly influenced by the ideals of the Impressionists, and their works all have characteristics of Impressionism, although they were not dedicated Impressionists.
Whistler painted tonal paintings which he titled after musical works, e.g. sonata, etc, with highly original figures and landscapes.  He did not paint imagery but tonal variations, maintaining harmony between tones.  (Colourists know how to use every hue to its best advantage.)  He created patterns and colours silhouetted against plain backgrounds – oriental influence.

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Wiki Salon at the Rue des Moulins 1894 – Toulouse-Lautrec

Toulouse-Lautrec was a Lithographer, and master craftsman, strongly influenced by Japanese prints.  He used flat bold colour, flat shapes and expressive line, both calligraphic and contour.  He was also influenced by Degas, with cut-off compositions, unusual view-points and interest in the character of the subjects.  He captured the gestures and poses of figures, as a characaturist or portrait painter would, using the body language of the figure.  He never made social criticism – they were just subjects to him.

(C)  Jud House  8/09/2016

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English Romantics:               John Constable
Joseph Turner
French Realists:                     Gustave Courbet
Honore Daumier


IMPRESSIONISM  (French)    1870 ->

Not really Impressionists:     James Whistler
Henri Toulouse-Lautrec
True Impressionists:             Claude Monet
Alfred Sisley
Camille Pissaro
Impressionists (+ other):      August Renoir
Edgar Degas
Mary Cassatt
Berthe Morisot

POSTIMPRESSIONISM          1880 ->

Formal (objective):                Paul Cezanne
Georges Seurat
Expressive (subjective):         Vincent Van Gogh
Paul Gauguin

FAUVES    1905 – 1908

Henri Matisse                        Andre Derain
Maurice de Vlaminck
Precursors of German Expressionism:      James Ensor
Edvard Munch
Look up Expressionists:       Max Beckman
George Greosz
Kath Kollwitz


The Blue Rider  (Munich)     1911 – 1914
This was Abstract – Non-figurative. Non-representational.
Wassily Kandinsky
Paul Klee
Franz Marc
Alexi Von Jawlensky (not a member)
The Bridge   (Dresden)         1906 – 1913    Figurative.
Ernst Kirchner
Emil Nolde
Karl Schmidt-Rottluff

CUBISM                                 1907 ->

1.  Proto-Cubism – Cezanneism   1907 – 1910
2.  Analytical-Cubism           1910 – 1912
3.  Synthetic-Cubism            1912 – 1914

Individual characteristics:    Pablo Picasso
Revolutionary characteristics:  George Braque
Pictorial analytical style:      Juan Gris
Ferdinand Leger
(Robert Delauney)

SCHOOL OF PARIS –  not an ism, just a group.

Marc Chagall                         Georges Rouault
Maurice Utrillo                      Henri Matisse
Amadeo Modigliani               Pablo Picasso
Chaim Soutine                       George Braque
Juan Gris


Neo-Plasticism:                   De Stijl
Piet Mondrian
Suprematism: (Russian)     Kasimir Malevich
Constructivism:                   Naum Gabo
Antoine Pevsner

DADA                                    1915 – 1922

Leader of Dadaists:              Marcel Duchamp
Introduced Collage:             Kurt Schwitters
Hans Van Arp
Max Ernst

SURREALISM                      1924 ->

Founder of Surrealism – both Abstract and Figurative:
Giorgio de Chirico
Max Ernst
Hans Van Arp
Figurative:                           Rene Magritte
Salvador Dali
Abstract:                              Yves Tanguy
Jean Miro

FUTURISM                          1909

Expressive:                         Giacomo Balla
Umberto Boccioni
Gino Severini

KINETIC (Sculpture)         1920s

OP ART (Optical)                1950s

Formal:                               Victor Vasarely
Bridget Riley
Jacob Agam
Expressive:                        Alexander Calder


Hans Van Arp                     Umberto Boccioni
Naum Gabo                        Antoine Pevsner
Constantine Brancusi        Henry Moore
Alberto Giacometti            Jacques Lipchitz
Barbara Hepworth


Action:                               Jackson Pollock
Willem De Kooning
Colourfield:                        Mark Rothko
Clyfford Still


Jaspar Johns                        Robert Rauschenberg

POP ART    (Popular)

Andy Warhol                      Roy Lichtenstein
Tom Wesselmann              Claes Oldenburg


Ellsworth Kelly

Jud House  5/09/2016

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